Potential for evolutionary responses to climate change – evidence from tree populations

Année de publication



Global Change Biology 19 1645 1661 6


Evolutionary responses are required for tree populations to be able to track climate change. Results of 250 years of common garden experiments show that most forest trees have evolved local adaptation, as evidenced by the adaptive differentiation of populations in quantitative traits, reflecting environmental conditions of population origins. On the basis of the patterns of quantitative variation for 19 adaptation‐related traits studied in 59 tree species (mostly temperate and boreal species from the Northern hemisphere), we found that genetic differentiation between populations and clinal variation along environmental gradients were very common (respectively, 90% and 78% of cases). Thus, responding to climate change will likely require that the quantitative traits of populations again match their environments. We examine what kind of information is needed for evaluating the potential to respond, and what information is already available. We review the genetic models related to selection responses, and what is known currently about the genetic basis of the traits. We address special problems to be found at the range margins, and highlight the need for more modeling to understand specific issues at southern and northern margins. We need new common garden experiments for less known species. For extensively studied species, new experiments are needed outside the current ranges. Improving genomic information will allow better prediction of responses. Competitive and other interactions within species and interactions between species deserve more consideration. Despite the long generation times, the strong background in quantitative genetics and growing genomic resources make forest trees useful species for climate change research. The greatest adaptive response is expected when populations are large, have high genetic variability, selection is strong, and there is ecological opportunity for establishment of better adapted genotypes.

Type de publication
  • journal
Type de document
  • review-article
Classification - Inist-CNRS
  • 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
  • 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
  • 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie
Classification - Scopus
  • 1 - Physical Sciences
  • 2 - Environmental Science
  • 3 - General Environmental Science
  • 3 - Ecology
  • 3 - Environmental Chemistry
  • 3 - Global and Planetary Change
Classification - Science Metrix
  • 1 - natural sciences
  • 2 - biology
  • 3 - ecology
Classification - Clarivate Analytics (Subject Category)
  • 1 - science
  • 2 - environmental sciences
  • 2 - ecology
  • 2 - biodiversity conservation
Termes extraits

ecology; genetics; pinus; climate change; phenotypic; adaptive; global change biology; sylvestris; cline; picea; phenology; abies; local adaptation; rehfeldt; aitken; savolainen; blackwell publishing; altitudinal; provenance trials; conifer; kremer; provenance; climatic; forest trees; phenological; phenotypic plasticity; hardiness; tree species; genetic variation; latitudinal; forest ecology; molecular ecology; canadian journal; genomic; trait; annual review; pinus sylvestris; vitasse; population sizes; silva; forest research; tness; contorta; genome; boreal; lande; ecophysiology; population differentiation; ecology letters; range margins; clinal; wang; genetic differentiation; phenotype; variance; genetic responses; natural selection; menziesii; holliday; populus; sitchensis; european conifers; clinal variation; scots pine; phytologist; environmental gradients; gomulkiewicz; genetic; evolutionary responses; evolutionary biology; natural populations; frost hardiness; norway spruce; silvae genetica; quantitative traits; ecology evolution; american naturalist; locus; nucleotide diversity; more details; tree populations; population structure; directional selection; global; pinus contorta; genetic architecture; phenological shifts; quantitative genetics; nature reviews genetics; environmental change; adaptive responses; populus tremula; fragmented distributions; response functions; environmental gradient; height increment; phenotypic variation; environmental variation; adaptation; dispersal; epigenetic; plasticity; national academy; large populations; heterogeneous environments; individual populations; continuous distributions; southern margin; adaptive capacity; climatic adaptation; optimum phenotype; reciprocal transplant experiments; drought tolerance; genetic drift; chevin lande; phenological traits; rapid climate change; picea sitchensis; plant science; altitudinal gradient; demographic history; recherche forestiere; genetic correlations; individual loci; quantitative trait loci; pinus taeda; warming climate; population size; adaptive traits; kirkpatrick barton; climatic change; adaptive evolution; long generation times; genetic basis; royal society; northern hemisphere; quantitative variation; environmental conditions; climate warming; genomic selection; tree genetics genomes; quantitative trait; nucleotide; biology; ecological; evolutionary; fragmented; environmental; extinction; gene; blackwell; theoretical predictions; pinus pinaster; small effect sizes; fragmented populations; crop plants; small pinus nigra; west europe; krutovskii bergmann; neutral markers; fragmented range; association studies; continuous populations; small populations; silent sites; recent climate change; climatic changes; such predictions; nature genetics; differential selection; selection responses; pseudotsuga menziesii; picea abies; multiple populations; latitudinal clines; latitudinal cline; strong selection; large diamonds; standard deviations; spring phenology; altitudinal gradients; provenance trial studies; genetic variance; linear regressions; skroppa magnussen; mimura aitken; drought stress; long distance dispersal; local selection; higher altitudes; more information; prediction models; phenotypic variance; evolutionary applications; northern areas; several tree species; adaptive plasticity; boreal species; simplest model; european aspen; predictive models; association study; water availability; species range shifts; reich oleksyn; coastal douglas; global ecology; further discussion; biotic interactions; loblolly pine; natural conditions; climatic conditions; total phenotypic variation; forest science; mountain pine beetle; epigenetic effects; epigenetic variation; high levels; seed maturation; genetic variability; genetic structure; extinction risk; many models; revue canadienne; davis shaw; small effects; tree species composition; global warming; complex traits; plos genetics; association mapping; sitka spruce; current distributions; large number; average nucleotide diversity; range margin; extensive gene; cambridge university press; continuous population; silva fennica; global change; plant phenotypic plasticity; tree physiology; southern populations

Entité nommée
Entité nommée - Emplacement géographique
  • Avignon
  • Montpellier
  • Raleigh
  • Switzerland
  • Finland
  • Oulu
  • Canada
  • Helsinki
  • NC
  • American
  • Madrid
  • Vancouver
  • Europe
  • America
  • France
  • Tibet
  • Spain
Entité nommée - Organisme
  • Croatia Serbia South
  • Department of Forest and Conservation
  • South Croatia South
  • University of Helsinki
  • Institute of Biology, Universit
  • IPCC
  • University of British Columbia
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • Alps Romania Larix
  • Department of Forestry
  • Greece Serbia Bulgaria East Spain South France North Italy Croatia Greece South West Europe South Europe Pinus
  • University of Oulu
  • Environmental Resources, NC State University
  • Department of Forest Ecology and Genetics
  • Forest Research Centre
  • Genome Canada and Genome BC
Entité nommée - Personne
Matti Salmela; Martin Lascoux; America
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