Climate change is taking place more rapidly and severely in the Arctic than anywhere on the globe, exposing Arctic vertebrates to a host of impacts. Changes in the cryosphere dominate the physical changes that already affect these animals, but increasing air temperatures, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification will also affect Arctic ecosystems in the future. Adaptation via natural selection is problematic in such a rapidly changing environment. Adjustment via phenotypic plasticity is therefore likely to dominate Arctic vertebrate responses in the short term, and many such adjustments have already been documented. Changes in phenology and range will occur for most species but will only partly mitigate climate change impacts, which are particularly difficult to forecast due to the many interactions within and between trophic levels. Even though Arctic species richness is increasing via immigration from the South, many Arctic vertebrates are expected to become increasingly threatened during this century.
climate change; arctic vertebrates; biol; vertebrate; ecosystem; gilg; acad; seabird; lemming; ecol; climate change impacts; arctic; tundra; mammal; york academy; trophic; predator; mismatch; ecology; shorebird; herbivore; population dynamics; phenology; proc; climate warming; global change biol; predation; range shifts; marine mammals; arctic vertebrates gilg; appl; caribou; whale; invertebrate; phenological; phenotypic; arctic marine mammals; global warming; gauthier; tness; ongoing; parasite; biotic; polar biol; svalbard; vulpes; phenologies; kittiwake; oecologia; climatic; comp; precipitation; reindeer; northeast greenland; conserv; integr; poleward; pathogen; gull; evolutionary responses; phenotypic plasticity; trophic mismatch; arctic species; greenland; dynamics; west greenland; food resources; environmental conditions; arctic tundra; trophic interactions; prey availability; genetic diversity; western hudson; recent decades; goose; arctic foxes; food availability; genetic variation; distribution range; recent years; arctic ecosystems; poleward shifts; many species; snow geese; annual cycle; southern beaufort; large herbivores; ivory gull; lemming cycles; polar; climate; ecological; global; east greenland; southern border; stress axis; immune status; snow depth; different habitats; plant phenology; arctic shorebirds; marine ecosystems; species distributions; trends ecol; climate changes; distribution ranges; invertebrate food; ecological responses; reproductive success; thermal windows; other species; carbon uptake; annual cycles; animal ecol; population size; long generation times; recent climate change; phenological changes; cambridge university press; trophic levels; short term; constraint; warming; current changes; gosling growth; strong impact; general trends; molecular ecology; spring plant growth; survival rates; offspring production; ursus maritimus; temperate species; other example; specialist feeders; ongoing climate changes; past decade; northern limit; southern limit; temporal distribution; seabird species; ongoing changes; stronger impacts; little auks alle alle; previous section; winter survival; long term; other regions; long periods; geographical barriers; habitat utilization; summer season; best example; polar basin; shorebird species; suitable habitats; ovibos moschatus; arctic biome; higher mortality; vulpes lagopus; several studies; west africa; species richness; late winter; small rodents; ecophysiological constraints; arctic regions; geographical distribution; weather conditions; positive feedback; vulpes vulpes; marine ones; nest density; climatic effects; mammalian herbivores; primary production; body stores; marine mammal; vertebrate species; little auks; foraging behavior; high levels; evolutionary consequences; life cycles; biotic interactions; seasonal environment; resource availability; environmental temperatures; geographic range; ringed seal; ringed seals; plastic responses; individual plasticity; evolutionary adaptation; regional differences; trends parasitol; climatic change; pagophilic species; circumpolar scale; climate conditions; previous sections; water availability; vertebrate communities; arctic systems; large gulls; winter period; ungulate carcasses; energetic bottleneck; climate models; natural systems; ecological impacts; environmental change; current knowledge; major knowledge gaps; hormonal responses; environmental changes; arctic climate impact assessment; predation pressure; tellus series meteorol; marginal zone; many interactions; gauthier giroux; whale species; population cycles; warming climate; natural selection; physical changes; subnivean spaces; equipe ecologie evolutive; laboratoire biogeosciences; oxford university press; seasonal variation; avian biol; small mammals; body condition; potential impacts; rissa tridactyla; alopex lagopus; basic appl; rapid climate change; species; chick; plasticity; evolutionary